- Induction (forcing labor to start) by the administration of drugs (oxytocin and prostaglandins)
- Augmentation (speeding spontaneously occurring labor) by administrating drugs (oxytocin)
- Use of analgesics and epidural anesthesia (pain medications)
- Cesarean sections (surgical removal of baby) and even elective Cesarean section
- Deliveries in an unfamiliar environment (hospital)
- Peripheral action
- uterine contractions
- let down reflex of lactation
- Central effect
- decreases fear
- increases trust
- encourages bonding
- stimulates maternal behavior
Some scientists are examining the long-term effects of such labors, hypothesing about possible conseqences after interfering with the natural hormonal system. They are studying the possible links between hormonal interference during labor and the baby's stress reactions, human bonding, anxiety disorders, depression, and even autism.
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CG70:Induction of labour:NICE guidline
Begley C. The effect of Ergometrine on breast feeding. Midwifery 1990;6:60–72.
Winberg J. Mother and newborn baby: mutual regulation of physiology and behavior – a selective review. Dev Psychobiol 2005;47:217–29.
Dunne C, Da Silva O, Schmidt G, Natale R.:Outcomes of elective labour induction and elective caesarean section in low-risk pregnancies between 37 and 41 weeks' gestation.
Alfirevic Z, Kelly AJ, Dowswell T.:Intravenous oxytocin alone for cervical ripening and induction of labour.